University of Richmond

Legal, Factual and Other Internet Sites for Attorneys and Others

By Timothy L. Coggins*

Introduction

This listing of Internet sites for legal, factual, and other research presents a variety of sources for attorneys, law students, law librarians, and others who use the Web. Initially developed for an Advanced Legal Research course and a continuing education session for legal assistants and paralegals, the listing includes sites for primary authorities, both federal and state, as well as URLs for other types of information such as names of possible expert witnesses and biographical and background information about individuals.1

Researchers who want to locate additional sites for legal and other types of research can find Internet sites for attorneys and legal researchers identified in many sources. At the American Bar Association Law Practice Management Section's annual TECHSHOW, the always popular 60 Sites in 60 Minutes program offers the favorite websites of the attorney and other panel presenters.2 There are many other sites and even print books that identify relevant, new, useful, and intriguing websites for attorneys and legal researchers.3

Attorneys and others who are generally interested in how attorneys and their office personnel are using technology and the Web today might be interested in the results of an annual survey distributed and compiled by the Legal Technology Resource Center of the American Bar Association. The American Bar Association's 2008 Legal Technology Survey Report includes explanatory information as well as data presented in chart format in six categories: Baseline and Budgets; Law Office Technology; Litigation and Courtroom Technology; Web and Communication Technology; Online Research; and Mobile Lawyers.4

This listing of Internet websites includes eleven sections. Part I covers search engines. Part II identifies some important "comprehensive" or portal websites. Part III includes those websites that can be used to search for legislative and administrative materials, both Federal and state. Part IV covers case law research sites. Part V lists important Virginia legal research and state-specific websites. Part VI is a listing of foreign and international law sites, and Part VII identifies locations for secondary materials. Part VIII identifies websites for people, places, weather, vital records, company information, expert witnesses, and more. Part IX presents some helpful sites for legal and other news, as well as law blogs, wikis, and podcasts. Part X covers sites that are difficult to categorize into one of the earlier nine parts, and the last section, Part XI, is a list of the URLs for the law schools in Virginia, many of which provide legal research guides in the "library" portion of their websites.

Part I: Search Engines

The listing below divides search engines into one of two different types: standard search engines such as Google5 and other types of search engines such as those that search multiple search engines or that categorize or cluster results. There are many sources that compare various search engines and provide helpful charts, which identify how best to search using a particular search engine.6

A. Standard Search Engines

http://www.altavista.com http://www.excite.com
http://www.yahoo.com http://www.lycos.com
http://www.hotbot.com http://www.google.com
http://www.go.com http://gigablast.com

B. Other Search Engines:

http://www.grokker.com http://www.vivisimo.com
http://clusty.com http://a9.com
http://www.dogpile.com http://www.mamma.com
http://www.search.com http://www.metacrawler.com
http://www.alltheweb.com http://www.zapmeta.com
http://yq.search.yahoo.com http://www.live.com
http://answers.com http://www.hakia.com
http://answers.google.com 7 http://www.ask.com
(formerly AskJeeves)

Part II: Comprehensive or Portal Research Sites

Attorneys and legal researchers might be better served by starting their legal and other research by going to a comprehensive or portal research site. These sites are useful because they are good starting places for many different types of information, both primary and secondary. Another advantage of the comprehensive or portal site is its organization. Unlike searching the Web generally, portal sites offer some uniformity and consistency from page to page, allowing the user to develop an understanding of how to locate information using the portal. For example, a person researching at the "Law About " page of the Cornell Legal Information Institute website will find the same organization for information regardless of the subject. The page about immigration law is organized similarly in terms of its organization as the page about domestic relations law. In both instances, the researcher finds a section that provides some general background information about the subject, as well as references and links to primary authority, secondary resources, and other sources.

FindLaw: http://www.findlaw.com (Now owned and managed by Thomson-West.)

LexisOne: http://www.lexisone.com (Free up to a point; then can provide credit card for earlier cases.)

Justia.com: http://www.justia.com (Founded by Tim Stanley, who began and developed Findlaw and subsequently sold it to Thomson-West; provides access to free case law, codes, regulations, legal articles, and legal blog databases; includes a legal research and law practice series in areas such as injury law, criminal law, immigration law, etc.)

Legal Information Institute (Cornell University): http://www.law.cornell.edu (Probably the best of the law school websites; its "Law About..." section is frequently used by legal researchers to discover basic information about a subject matter as well as primary documents such as statutes and regulations.)

Washburn University’s WashLaw: http://www.washlaw.edu

Chicago-Kent College of Law: http://www.kentlaw.edu

CataLaw: http://www.CataLaw.com

Internet Legal Research Group: http://www.ilrg.com

Virtual Law Library: http://law.indiana.edu/lawlibrary/research/resources/

Virtual Chase: http://www.virtualchase.com (No longer being updated, but an excellent source for research guides about particular subjects.)

Hieros Gamos: http://www.hg.org

Reference Desk: http://www.refdesk.com

State and Local Government on the Net (formerly Piper Resources): http://www.statelocalgov.net

Law.com: http://www.law.com

eLaw.Central: http://www.elawcentral.com/elaw.isa/main

TheLaw.net: http://www.thelaw.net

Zimmerman’s Legal Research Guides: http://www.lexisnexis.com/infopro (Covers many different legal subjects and provides excellent guidance to the research resources in those subject areas.)

Law Library of Congress website: http://www.loc.gov/law/ ("World's largest collection of law books and legal resources;" provides access to the Global Legal Information Network, Guide to Law Online and the Global Legal Monitor.)

Public Resource Organization: http://public.resource.org(New endeavor by Carl Malamud, a proponent of open access to primary legal authority, whose new website provides access to U.S. Supreme Court opinions dating back to the 1700s and all U.S. appeals courts decisions dating back to 1950.)8

Bloomberg Law: http://about.bloomberg.com/professional/law.html (A newcomer to the legal research field; "legal, regulatory and compliance platform, offering a suite of news, data, analytics and research tools to the legal and compliance community.")

Part III: Online Sites for Legislative & Administrative Materials

A. Federal Legislation & Administrative Materials

THOMAS: Access to federal legislation (full text, summaries, status); committee reports; public laws; Congressional Record. Also highlights significant documents such as Omnibus Budget Acts and recent stimulus bills and related documents. http://thomas.loc.gov

USA.gov (formerly FirstGov): Billed as the most comprehensive site (consolidates about 27 million government web pages) to use when you are searching for information about any branch/agency of the Federal Government. http://www.usa.gov/

U.S. Code: This version of the USC has good search flexibility. http://uscode.house.gov/search/criteria.shtml and http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode

Code of Federal Regulations: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/index.html

Regulations.gov: Offers the opportunity to find, review, and submit comments on proposed rules from Federal agencies; designed for lay citizens, not attorneys. http://www.regulations.gov

Federal Register: Coverage includes 1994-present (vol. 59 - present). http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html (Current issue of FR also accessible at this site)

Federal Register: Provides access to documents that will be published in the next day's Federal Register (click on "View Documents Online" button). http://www.federalregister.gov

Federal Web Locator: Links to federal agencies. http://www.lib.auburn.edu/madd/docs/fedloc.html

Metavid: Video archives of congressional floor proceedings on the web, searchable according to who said what; hosted by the University of California at Santa Cruz. http://metavid.ucsc.edu

GPO Access on the Web: Access to government documents including: Budget of the US; Congressional Directory and documents; bills; Congressional Record; Federal Register; History of Bills; Public Laws; Congressional Calendars; US Code; Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. http://www.gpoaccess.gov/

GPO's Federal Digital System (FDsys): Advanced digital system that enables GPO to manage government information in a digital form; included files submitted by Congress and federal agencies; information gathered from federal agencies' websites; digital files created by scanning previously printed publications. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/search/home.action

Federal Legislative History sites: Thomas - http://thomas.loc.gov; University of Michigan - http://www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/legishis.html. (LexisNexis and Westlaw have databases that provide legislative history documents for those attorneys who have subscriptions. For users searching for legislative history documents at the University of Richmond, the LexisNexis Congressional (CIS legislative histories) database is available. There also is a collection of federal legislative histories available via the HeinOnline service at the University of Richmond.)

LSU Libraries Federal Agencies Directory: Created in 1994 this website lists and links to current/active/existing U.S. Federal government agencies. http://www.lib.lsu.edu/gov/index.html

GovTrack: Independent website run by a graduate student "in his spare time," following the status of federal legislation and the activities of senators and representatives. http://www.govtrack.us

OpenCRS Project: Project of the Center for Democracy and Technology designed to provide citizen access to CRS Reports that are already in the public domain and to encourage Congress to provide public access to all CRS Reports. http://opencrs.com

National Archives: National Archives and Records Administration website of important documents. http://www.archives.gov/

DOJ Legal Opinions 1998-2007 complete index: posted at the GovernmentAttic.org website. http://governmentattic.org/

FOI Request: http://www.rcfp.org/foi_letter/generate.php

B. State Legislative and Administrative Materials

ALSO!: American Law Sources Online: State law resources, including state statutes. http://www.lawsource.com/also

State Legislative Presence on the Internet (Multistate Associates Incorporated): Chart comparing online state statute availability. http://www.multistate.com/site.nsf/state?openPage

Drafts of Uniform and Model Acts: http://www.law.upenn.edu/bll/ulc/ulc.htm

National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws: Develops and provides to states "non-partisan, well-conceived and well-drafted legislation that brings clarity and stability to critical areas of the law." http://www.nccusl.org/update

Council of State Governments: May be used like a "portal" site since it links to state home pages. http://www.csg.org/CSG/default.aspx

Municode: Excellent collection of municipal, city and county codes available free with good searching capabilities. http://www.municode.com

National Association of Secretaries of State: Portal for online state databases. http://www.nass.org

National Conference of State Legislatures: Useful for 50-state legislative tracking on many topics including agriculture and rural development, ethics, health issues, transportation, and more. http://www.ncsl.org/programs/lis/lrl/50statetracking.htm

Part IV: Case Law Sites

The sites listed below offer access to state and federal court decisions. Researchers might want to begin research with the following when searching for federal court decisions: Emory Law Library Federal Courts Finder, http://www.law.emory.edu/index.php?id=2997/, which links to the Supreme Court decisions and opinions from the district courts and federal courts of appeals when available. Search strategies vary greatly from site to site, but most are searchable by keyword and/or date. Researchers should also look at the websites that are listed in Part I under the comprehensive or portal website listing for additional access to case law.

A. U.S. Supreme Court and Other Courts

U.S. Supreme Court website: Includes information about the Court and the justices, as well as links for the calendar, court rules, dockets, opinions, orders, and other information. Previous volumes of the U.S. Reports at this site are pdfs of the print volumes; therefore, a researcher can easily locate particular volumes and specific page numbers. http://www.supremecourtus.gov

Legal Information Institute (Cornell): Coverage May, 1990-present. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/index.html

LexisOne: Free up to a certain point; complete coverage of the U.S. Supreme Court opinions, but limited coverage for other courses. http://www.lexisone.com

FLITE database (Federal Legal Information Through Electronics): Includes over 7400 Supreme Court opinions from 1937-1975. http://supcourt.ntis.gov/

Fastcase: More inexpensive alternative for accessing state and federal cases; check database coverage. Service is available as a benefit for members of the Virginia State Bar.9 Fastcase is also backing a new endeavor, the Public Library of Law (http://www.plol.org), which provides more than fifty years of federal case law, as well as recent state cases from all fifty states. http://www.fastcase.com

Findlaw: Includes Supreme Court decisions since 1893 (comprehensive); may be browsed by year and by U.S. Reports volume number; searchable by citation, title, and full text. http://www.findlaw.com/casecode/supreme.html

U.S. Supreme Court Oral Arguments: Audio files of recordings of selected oral arguments from Oyez: U.S. Supreme Court Multimedia. http://www.oyez.org

U.S. Supreme Court Records and Briefs (selected cases only; temporarily unavailable when searched in March 2009): The Curiae Project: http://curiae.law.yale.edu

Web Guide to U.S. Supreme Court Research: http://www.llrx.com/features/supremectwebguide.htm

Federal Judiciary Directory Information: Search by office, city, zip code, area code, many other ways. http://www.uscourts.gov/contact.html#courtlocator

Public Resource Organization: Will eventually include a large and free archive of federal case law, including all Courts of Appeals decisions from 1950 to the present and all Supreme Court decisions since 1754; includes links to courts, federal government agencies, Congress and some subject matter databases, such as copyright. http://public.resource.org

AltLaw: Joint project of Columbia Law School and the University of Colorado Law School; purpose is to make federal case law easier to search and freely accessible to the public; contains 170,000 decisions, dating back to the early 1990s from the Supreme Court and federal appellate courts. http://www.altlaw.org

B. Federal Circuit Courts of Appeals

Federal Circuit: http://www.law.emory.edu/fedcircuit/

D.C. Circuit: http://www.cadc.uscourts.gov/internet/internet.nsf

First Circuit: http://www.law.emory.edu/1circuit/

Second Circuit: http://www.ca2.uscourts.gov/

Third Circuit: http://vls.law.vill.edu/Locator/3/index.htm

Fourth Circuit: http://www.ca4.uscourts.gov

Fifth Circuit: http://www.ca5.uscourts.gov/

Sixth Circuit: http://www.law.emory.edu/6circuit/

Seventh Circuit: http://www.ca7.uscourts.gov/

Eighth Circuit: http://www.ca8.uscourts.gov/opinions/opinions.html

Ninth Circuit: http://www.ca9.uscourts.gov/

Tenth Circuit: http://www.ca10.uscourts.gov/generalinfo.php

Eleventh Circuit: http://www.law.emory.edu/11circuit

(NOTE: If a court website exists, there will typically be a link from the Emory site to the court site. In some instances, there will be a link from the official court site back to Emory for earlier opinions.)

C. State Court Opinions10 & Other Information

Internet Legal Resources Guide: Includes links to state and federal decisions. http://www.ilrg.com/caselaw

ALSO!: American Law Sources Online: State law resources, including court opinions. http://www.lawsource.com/also

Federal, state, and local court rules, forms, and dockets (links to 1,400+ sites): http://www.llrx.com/courtrules

Legal Dockets Online: court case information and public records.11 http://www.legaldockets.com (includes a blog at http://www.legaldockets.com/files/blogger.html)

U.S. Courts Civil and Criminal Forms: Collection of more than 125 commonly used forms, such as a summons in a criminal case, a criminal complaint, search and seizure warrant, summons in a civil action, summons on a third-party complaint, and more. http://www.uscourts.gov/forms/uscforms.cfm?ShowAll=Yes

SunEthics.com: Legal ethics, judicial ethics, and bar admissions issues. http://sunethics.com

Part V: Sites for Virginia Materials

Virginia General Assembly: Full text, summaries, status, and history of bills and resolution; schedules of activity; full text searching of the Virginia Code, Administrative Code, Constitution, and legislation. http://legis.state.va.us

Code of Virginia: http://legis.state.va.us/laws/codeofva.htm

Virginia Administrative Code: http://leg1.state.va.us/000/srr.htm

Virginia Register of Regulations: http://legis.state.va.us/codecomm/Register/regindex.htm

State of Virginia: “Government” link provides access to State agencies, boards, councils, and commissions; Virginia Government Directory; etc.: http://www.virginia.gov/cmsportal2/

Virginia Regulatory Town Hall: Created to facilitate regulatory tracking; resource for regulatory text and interpretations with guidance documents organized by secretariat, agency, board, and chapter of the Virginia Administrative Code. http://townhall.virginia.gov

Municipal Codes and Ordinances: Includes codes and ordinances from a number of Virginia cities and counties. http://www.municode.com/ (Select “Online Library,” then click on your state on the map.)

Virginia’s Judicial System:Opinions of the Virginia Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals; General information about Virginia courts including Supreme, Court of Appeals, Circuit Courts, and District Courts; Virginia State Law Library, Supreme Court session calendar and arguments docket. http://www.courts.state.va.us

Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia: http://leg1.state.va.us/000/srs.htm

Bankruptcy courts for the Eastern and Western Districts of Virginia: Includes court rules, hours, and fee schedules; registered users can access bankruptcy court opinions from the Eastern District. http://www.vaeb.uscourts.gov/ and http://www.vawb.uscourts.gov/courtweb/enter1.html

Workers’ Compensation Commission: Cases from 1995 to the present as well as those cases since 1990 that were electronically transcribed. http://www.vwc.state.va.us

Office of the Attorney General for Virginia: Opinions from 1996 to the present. http://www.oag.state.va.us/

Virginia Code of Professional Responsibility and the Virginia Rules of Professional Conduct: Includes a cross-reference table between the Rules and the Code. http://www.vsb.org/profguides/1999/codeprof.html

Virginia Legal Ethics Opinions: Provides access to LEOs numbered 1360 through 1835; 1990 - present). http://www.vacle.org/leo.htm

Virginia State Bar: Bar exam results; officers; committees and boards; sections; staff directory; recent LEO and UPL opinions; access to the Virginia Lawyer. http://www.vsb.org

Virginia Bar Association: Membership information, publications, and calendar. http://www.vba.org

Virginia State Corporation Commission: http://www.scc.virginia.gov

Virginia Lawyers Weekly: Legal news for Virginia, including synopses of opinions from the Virginia Supreme Court, the Virginia Court of Appeals, and various lower courts in Virginia. http://www.valawyersweekly.com/

Virginia CLE: Mandatory CLE information; online registration and order forms; seminars; publications; Virginia Attorneys Network. http://www.vacle.org/

Part VI: Foreign & International Law Sites

Findlaw International Law Sources: Links to international organizations and laws of foreign countries. Also allows web search of law resources by continent. http://www.findlaw.com/12international/index.html

The European Library: Search through the resources of thirty of the forty-seven national libraries with access to more than 150 million entries; not full-text access, just bibliographic access. http://www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/portal/index.html

International Law in Domestic Courts: Domestic cases that explore international issues; cases from various nations throughout the world. http://ildc.oxfordlaw.reports.com

Guide to Law Online: Nation of the World (Library of Congress): Annotated list of links to the law of jurisdictions around the world. http://www.loc.gov/law/guide/index.html

Worldwide Legal News: Law Library of Congress converted its Global Legal Monitor from a static, monthly PDF newsletter to this dynamic and regularly updated website that traces legal news and developments worldwide. http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news

ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law: Published since 1997, a comprehensive guide to legal research in international law. http://www.asil.org/erghome.cfm

ASIL Electronic Information System for International Law: Published by the American Society of International Law in various formats since 1997. http://www.eisil.org

Guide to Foreign and International Legal Databases (Law Library at New York University): http://www.law.nyu.edu/library/foreign%5Fintl/

World Digital Library Project: Primary materials from cultures around the world, including manuscripts, maps, rare books, etc. http://www.worlddigitallibrary.org/project/english/index.html

Researching Public International Law: Treaty Sources: Database of frequently-cite treaties and other international instruments, maintained by the Law Library at the University of Minnesota. http://local.law.umn.edu/library/tools/pathfinders/most-cited.html

Commonwealth Legal Information Institute: Provides browsing and searching of 464 databases from fifty Commonwealth and common law countries and territories. http://www.commonlii.org

Canadian Legal Information Institute: Not-for-profit organization created by the Federation of Law Societies of Canada and designed to provide the public with permanent open access to the legal heritage of all Canadian jurisdictions. http://www.canlii.org

World Legal Information Institute: Free, independent and non-profit global legal research facility developed to provide a single search facility for databases from the legal information institutes of Australia, Britain, Ireland, Canada, Hong Kong, Cornell, and the Pacific Islands. http://www.worldlii.org 12

FLARE: Foreign Law Research: Collaboration between the major libraries collecting law in the United Kingdom (Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, Bodleian Law Library, Squire Law Library, British Library and the School of Oriental and African Studies) to improve the coverage and accessibility of foreign legal materials at the national level. http://ials.sas.ac.uk/flare/flare.htm

Trade Agreements Database: Latest information on America's trade agreements; joint effort among several government agencies include the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, State, Treasury, and the Office of the United States Trade Representative. http://tradeagreements.gov/

Part VII: Sites for Secondary Resources

A. Law Review and Journals

Findlaw: Allows keyword searching through the text of online law reviews http://stu.findlaw.com/journals/general.html

American Law Source Online (ALSO): U.S. Law Reviews and Periodicals (click on "law reviews and periodicals" on the first page of the site): http://www.lawsource.com/also

ABA Journal: Magazine's entire site and all of its contents open to the public since July 2007, after years of being available only to ABA members; site has back issues through 2005. http://www.abajournal.com

Contents Pages from Law Reviews and Other Scholarly Journals: Searchable database of the current three months' worth of contents pages from over 750 law reviews and scholarly journals received by the Tarlton Law Library at the University of Texas. http://tarlton.law.utexas.edu/tallons/content_search.html

Ingenta: Searchable index to thousands of academic and professional journals. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/

HighWire: More than a million scholarly journal articles from more than 900 journals available free through HighWire Press, a division of the Stanford University Libraries. http://highwire.stanford.edu

HighBeam: 35 million documents from over 3,000 sources, going back as far as twenty years. http://www.highbeam.com

Open Access Journal Content: Promotes models that ensure free and unrestricted access to scholarly and research journals. http://www.openj-gate.com

B. Associations & Directories:

American Bar Association: ABA news, ABA Journal, publications, meetings, CLE opportunities, discussion groups, section activities, and news, as well as much more information for attorneys. http://www.abanet.org

Findlaw: Foreign/international, national, state, and local bar associations; directories. http://www.findlaw.com/06associations

Martindale-Hubbell: Traditional directory that enables attorneys to research lawyers, law firms, government lawyers and corporate law departments. http://www.martindale.com/

West Legal Directory: Listing of lawyers and law firms. http://lawyers.findlaw.com/

Avvo: Unveiled in June 2007, this new website's mission is "...to help people navigate the complex and confusing legal industry and to choose a lawyer;" rapidly expanding coverage, but currently coverage is limited with fewer than twenty states and the District of Columbia.13 http://www.avvo.com

C. General Legal and Other Reference Resources

Net's Best Law Dictionary - Legal Lexicon's Lyceum: Includes thousands of definitions and explanations of legal terms, phrases, and concepts. http://www.lectlaw.com/def.htm

American Law Sources Online (ALSO): Laws of the U.S., Canada, and Mexico; uniform laws; law schools; law reviews; directories. http://www.lawsource.com/also

LawyerLinks: Corporate law research service, organizes materials using a topical index. http://www.lawyerlinks.com

President's DNA Initiative: Initiative designed to “advance justice through DNA technology” with links to highlights, research initiatives, speeches, testimony, and press releases, etc. http://www.dna.gov/

FDA’s Heart Health Online: http://www.fda.gov/hearthealth/

Recalls: Presents recalls as issued by six government agencies. http://www.recalls.gov

Findlaw: Legal subject index; cases, and codes; professional development; news and reference materials; law firms and lawyers; legal associations and organizations. http://www.findlaw.com

Defense Research Institute: National association of defense lawyers' website that features DRI seminar materials and magazine and newsletter articles, searchable by keywords or browsed by topic. http://www.dri.org

FOIA Facts: http://www.llrx.com/columns/foia23.htm

Agency Websites (Hide and Seek with FOIA Information): http://www.llrx.com/columns/foia8.htm

FOLDOC: Free On-line Dictionary of Computing. http://foldoc.org/

Handbook on Military Law 2004 (Secrecy News): http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/army/law2004.pdf

HIPAA Security Rule: What It Is & How to Comply With It: http://www.securityfocus.com/infocus/1764

Legal Information Institute (Cornell): Legal materials arranged by topic; U.S. Supreme Court decisions; U.S. Code; U.S. Constitution; Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; Federal Rules of Evidence; variety of other legal material. http://www.law.cornell.edu

Citation Information from LII: Citation primer based on the Bluebook (shows changes made by the 18th edition). http://www.law.cornell.edu/citation

LawStartPage: http://www.lawstartpage.com/

The Memory Hole: Website owner preserves as many documents that disappear from other websites, including government sites, as he can. Examples of items available at the Memory Hole are CRS reports that were generally unavailable at other sites, as well as many documents about the NSA government surveillance program. http://www.thememoryhole.org

Internet Archive (Wayback Machine): Searchable using an URL to see what was included on a company or other institution's website at a given point in time. http://www.archive.org/index.php

CyberCemetery: Maintained by the University of North Texas libraries, site is the repository for many government publications, both state and federal, including a database of Congressional Research Service reports (which are generally not available to researchers and the public); click on the "Digital Collections" for access to the CRS reports and other important collections. http://govinfo.library.unt.edu

Government Attic: Access to hundreds of “interesting” federal government documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. http://www.GovernmentAttic.org

FBI Files: http://www.GetGrandpasFBIfile.com and http://www.GetMyFBIfile.com

Guide to Finding Old Web Pages: Available at the Search Engines Showdown webpage and last updated as of January 27, 2008; table shows the name of the services, the way to find archived pages and some notes as to the age of a page that the archive may contain. http://www.searchengineshowdown.com/others/archive.shtml

Patent Assignments on the Web: http://assignments.uspto.gov/assignments/?db=pat

Jurist - Law Professors’ Network: http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/lawschl2.htm

Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press - State-by-State Look at Electronic Court Access: http://www.rcfp.org/ecourt/index.html

Merck Manual: Based on the world's most widely used textbook in medicine. http://www.merck.com/mmhe/index.html

Visual Thesaurus: http://www.visualthesaurus.com/?vt

Legal Bitstream: Database of tax Materials beginning in 1990 with access to many IRS pronouncements such as rulings and procedures: http://www.legalbitstream.com

D. Sources for Verifying Quotations

Bartleby.com: http://www.bartleby.com/quotations

Bibliomania: http://www.bibliomania.com/

Quote Finder from Blogoscoped: http://blog.outer-court.com/quotefinder

Quoteland: http://www.quoteland.com

QuotesandSayings.com: http://www.quotesandsayings.com/finquoteframes.htm

Part VIII: Sites for People, Places, Weather, Records, Companies, Expert Witnesses, and More

A. Directories

Addresses.com: U.S. white pages; offers a reverse telephone directory - enter a telephone number and find the resident’s address and name. http://www.addresses.com/white_pages.php

Four11: Compiled by Metromail from published white page directories and other publicly available sources; one of the most comprehensive on the net; owned by Yahoo. http://people.yahoo.com/

Infospace: Features and array of white and yellow pages directories, city guides, and other listings; contains 112 million listings. http://www.infospace.com

Switchboard: One of the fastest directories; 106 million residential listings and 11 million business listings. http://www.switchboard.com

USA Search: Genealogy and Family History: page at the USA Search website that offers searching of Census Bureau information, family history, state archives, birth and death information, etc. http://usasearch.gov/search?v%3Aproject=firstgov-web&query=genealogy

WhoWhere?: Claims to have the largest directory of e-mail addresses as well as more than 90 million residential phone listings; offers a "family finder" genealogy search engine; utilizes a wildcard search option on the first name. http://www.whowhere.lycos.com/

Yellow Book: Business, people, reverse lookup. http://www.yellowbook.com

Globemaster Links: Provides access to database of active, reserve, retired, and veteran military personnel. http://www.globemaster.de/links/html

World Pages (phonebooks): http://global.wpz.com

B. Other People Finder Websites

Bigfoot: http://bigfoot.com

Google: http://www.google.com/help/features.html

KnowX People Finder: http://www.knowx.com

The Ultimate Pages: http://www.theultimates.com

Internet Address Finder: http://www.iaf.net/

PeopleSearch.net: http://peoplesearch.net/

Spock: http://www.spock.com

C. People – Social Security Numbers

Accurint: Now owned by LexisNexis, Accurint can locate almost anyone with aliases, historical addresses, relatives, associates, neighbors, assets, and more; focused on helping collection agencies, companies with internal collections departments, lawyers, insurance professionals, law enforcement agencies, and corporations locate debtors, witnesses, suspects, and other persons critical to their work; requires an account and does not offer as easy access to social security numbers as in the past, subscriber must now “qualify” in order to have access to social security numbers. http://www.accurint.com

D. Directories – Business

BigBook: American Business Information’s version of the nationwide yellow pages; search by company name, industry, and location. http://www.bigbook.com

Hoover’s Online: Provides information on 12,000 public and private companies; provides free capsule reports, but full profiles are for subscribers only. http://www.hoovers.com

EDGAR Database: SEC’s database of financial filings of public companies; 24 hour delay in data availability. http://www.sec.gov/edgar.shtml

Securities Mosaic: Makes SEC filings more accessible, as well as providing other value-added materials. http://www.securitiesmosaic.com

Corporate Information: Jump station for sites that offer information on locating companies; organized by country. http://www.corporateinformation.com

Delaware Corporations Commission: http://www.state.de.us/corp/default.shtml

Guide to Other Sources for Company Information: http://virtualchase.com/topics/company_information_index.shtml

E. Expert Witnesses14

Expert Witness & Litigation Consultant Pages: Organized by specialty, country, and state; scope is broad, and results seem somewhat limited. http://www.expertpages.com/

Noble Expert Witness Directory: One of the most famous directories now available on the net. http://www.experts.com/

Expert List from Hieros Gamos: Simple, phone book style list of experts organized by area of expertise compiled from experts who advertise in major legal publications; site also includes a searchable, self-listing database, in which experts can list themselves, describe their credentials and services, and provide links to their websites. http://www.hg.org/experts-serv.html

WashLaw Experts Page: Lengthy collection of links, including most sites listed here and links to individual expert pages; maintained by the Washburn University Law Library. http://www.washlaw.edu/expert/

FindLaw Experts Section: Extensive index of experts and consultants on the web; browse the index or search by key words. http://marketcenter.findlaw.com

Expert Witness Network: Sponsored by the Legal Resource Network; available free is an extensive, searchable index of experts with Web pages and the archives of the “expert-l” discussion list; paid subscribers have access to a database of experts’ curricula vitae and articles written by various experts. http://www.witness.net/

Expert Transcript Center: Extensive database of expert transcripts; lists experts for which Triodyne has background information; must call for list of transcripts for specific expert; fee for transcripts based on number of pages. http://www.triodyne.com/Transcript.htm

Defense Research Institute: Searchable database of 47,000 experts; fee-based and must be a member.15 http://www.dri.org

Idex: Commonly believed to be the best resource for defense experts; Includes more than 75,000 experts’ names; provides list of prior cases and opposition’s expert testimony; electronic transcript archive; must be a member. http://www.idex.com

Virginia Association of Defense Attorneys: Data about experts available only to members. http://www.vada.org

F. Public Records

KnowX: Free searches for people and businesses using a variety of data; results of free searches are highly summarized; full record is available for a fee. http://www.knowx.com

Death Records Index: Social Security death index offers information about individuals dying since 1962; name, social security number, date of birth, date of death, last know address; data from the Social Security Administration. http://www.ancestry.com/search/

Other related sites: http://www.funeralnet.com/ & http://www.legacy.com/obituaries.asp

National Obituary Archive: http://www.arrangeonline.com

Portico: Collection of websites, containing publicly available information for the advancement community. http://indorgs.virginia.edu/portico/

Search Systems: http://www.searchsystems.net

Vital Records Information State Index: Links and information on obtaining vital records from each state, territory and county of the U.S. http://vitalrec.com/index.html

RealQuest/City or County Property Records: http://www.realquest.com

Corporate Filings (example): Arizona– http://www.azcc.gov/divisions/corporations

Criminal Records (examples):

Part IX. News/Updating Sites, Blawgs, Wikis, and Podcasts16

A. Online Legal Research News and Online Legal News

LLRX: Excellent source for learning how to research a particular subject. http://www.llrx.com

Findlaw Legal News: http://news.findlaw.com

Electronic Discovery News: http://www.evestigate.com

Kasunic: http://www.kasunic.com

Legal Smartpros: http://accounting.smartpros.com/legalhome.xml

Inter Alia: http://www.inter-alia.net/

Law.com: http://www.law.com

Virtual Chase: Another excellent resource for guidance about researching particular subjects; no longer being updated, but archives continue to be very helpful. http://www.virtualchase.com

beSpacific: Daily law and technology news with links to primary and secondary sources on topics, including e-government, privacy, government documents, cybercrime and ID theft, the Patriot Act, freedom of information, federal legislation, legal research, knowledge management, blogs, RSS and wikis. http://www.bespacific.com

B. News (Especially up-to-date news)

Newspaper Association of America: http://naa.org

Total News: http://www.totalnews.com

Northern Light News Search: http://www.northernlight.com/nlsearch.html

Moreover: Recent news and updates: news headlines and stories from over 1500 sources. http://www.moreover.com

Salon Magazine: http://salon.com/?x

News Is Free: http://www.newsisfree.com/

Excite News Tracker: http://news.excite.com/index/id/home.html (for older news)

Writenews (newspapers from many different locations): http://www.writenews.com/newslinks

GoogleNews: http://news.google.com (GoogleNewsAlerts: sign up for alerts that will send an email whenever an article that matches your search criteria is published in any of the index's sources)

News Aggregator: http://www.newsgator.com/home.aspx

Stateline.org: Stories about issues facing state governments; also publishes reports that are useful to researchers, journalists and others; has a 50-state analysis of post 9/11 open records laws. http://www.stateline.org

Alternet.org: Produced by the Independent Media Institute to provide access to alternative press and political coverage. http://www.alternet.org/

Historic American Newspapers: Access to newspaper pages from select American newsprint sources ranging from 1880 to 1910. http://www.loc.gov/chroniclingamerica/

C. Law Blawgs17 and Wikis

Legal Blog Watch: http://www.legalblogwatch.com/

Law.com: Includes a listing (frequently updated) of law-related blogs (see "visit our bloggers" listing at the first page of newsletter); can sign up for delivery of free Legal Blog Watch newsletter. http://www.law.com

Opinio Juris: One of the first blogs devoted to international law and international relations. http://www.opiniojuris.org

Dipnote: U.S. State Department's blog. http://blogs.state.gov/

Library Weblogs: http://www.libdex.com/weblogs.html

Directory of Law Related Blogs: http://www.blawg.org

Law Library Blogs/Blogs by Law Librarians or Law Library Associations: http://library.law.wisc.edu/wisblawg/blogslistpublic.htm

Virginia Lawyers Weekly Blog: Features breaking news and new cases. http://vlweekly.blogspot.com

Blogpulse: Indexes around 400,000 posts per day, calls itself an "automated trend discovery system." http://www.blogpulse.com

Slaw: Weblog about Canadian legal research and the impact of technology on it; aim is to share information, offer advice and instruction. http://www.slaw.ca/

Wiki of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit: provides electronic access to Seventh Circuit case information, rules, procedures and opinions; first public wiki created by the federal judiciary. http://www.ca7.uscourts.gov/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page

Legally Minded: ABA's online community serving the legal profession; designed to create an "unparalleled" resource that gathers law school students, academics, firm administrators, legal support staff, judges, paralegals, attorneys, law librarians and other professionals to contribute, network and collaborate online.18 http://www.legallyminded.com/

Wikipedia: Online encyclopedia that anyone can edit with over 2,800,000 articles.19 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

Congresspedia: The Citizen's encyclopedia on Congress that anyone can edit. http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Congresspedia

D. Podcasts (Searching the Content of Podcasts)

Podscope: http://www.podscope.com

Blinkx: http://www.blinkx.com

Other sites that search for audio include: Yahoo!Search: http://audio.search.yahoo.com

Part X: Statistics

University of Michigan: http://www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/stats.html

Bureau of Labor Statistics: http://www.bls.gov

Bureau of the Census: http://www.census.gov

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/

FedStats: http://www.fedstats.gov

Labor Union Statistics: http://www.unionstats.com

Statistical Abstracts of the United States: http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/

Labor Union Statistics (compilation): http://www.unionstats.com/

Part XI: Miscellaneous Internet Sites

CEO Express: Source organized for a busy CEO with links to many different types of information, including movie reviews, airline schedules/prices and the stock market; also includes a section with links to Internet reference type materials such as directories, dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc. http://www.ceoexpress.com

CitySearch: Provides restaurant and entertainment reviews, weather, maps, sections for singles, and online auctions (absorbed content of Sidwalk.com). http://www.CitySearch.com

CityGuide: Similar to CitySearch. http://cityguide.aol.com/

Deep Web Research: http://www.deepwebresearch.info/

Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: http://www.extremesearcher.com/

Weather Information (many places): http://www.nws.noaa.gov/ and http://www.ceoexpress.com/

The World Clock: http://www.timeanddate.com

Nolo.com (“Law for All”): Legal publisher that publishes many “self help” type materials, but also includes a law store for purchasing software, books, forms, etc.; legal internet guide section includes information arranged by practice areas and other categories. http://www.nolo.com/

Words and Phrases: Devoted to recently coined words and phrases, old words that are being used in different ways, and existing words that have enjoyed a “recent renaissance.” http://www.wordspy.com

Contentville: Source for magazines, books, newsletters, study guides, and other information; developing collection of dissertations. http://www.contentville.com

Intute: Consortium of seven British universities with partners from many other universities, libraries, associations and societies; site reviews, evaluates and indexes educational and informational web pages from around the world. http://www.intute.ac.uk/

Dumb Laws: Listings and texts of “stupid” laws still on the books, organized by jurisdiction. http://www.dumblaws.com

Zillow.com: Real estate research with free valuations and other information on more than 40 million homes in the United States; historical value changes as compared to surrounding zip codes; etc. http://www.zillow.com

Conclusion

Although fairly obvious, there are two caveats that must be attached to any listing of this type. First, anyone using the sources identified in any listing of Internet websites must recognize that website URLs change frequently and that websites disappear. If you cannot locate a website using the URL in this listing, merely use the name of the website in Google or another search engine to attempt to locate the current URL for the site. Second, as merely a listing of websites that might be useful to attorneys, law students and others in the legal profession, this article clearly does not deal with the issue of whether or not online searching, print searching, or some combination of the two is the most effective type of legal and other research. Numerous authors have written extensively about that issue.20

*Associate Dean for Library & Information Services and Professor of Law, University of Richmond School of Law

1. Earlier versions of this article appeared as Legal, Factual and Other Internet Sites for Attorneys and Others, 12 Rich. J.L. & Tech. 17 (2005), http://law.richmond.edu/jolt/v12i4/article17.pdf and Legal, Factual and Other Internet Sites for Attorneys and Legal Professionals, 15 Rich. J.L. & Tech. 13 (2005), http://law.richmond.edu/jolt/v15i4/article13.pdf.

2. There is an archive of the 60 Sites in 60 Minutes Hall-of-Fame at the American Bar Association's TECHSHOW 2009 page. At the first page, look for the 60 Sites in 60 Minutes heading under the "More Information" category on the left side navigation bar. The link - http://new.abanet.org/calendar/TECHSHOW/Pages/60Sitesin60Minutes.aspx - connects to an archive of the program panelists' selections from 2001 through 2008. The 2009 TECHSHOW is scheduled for April 2-4, 2009, and the websites highlighted during the 2009 program will be available shortly at the TECHSHOW page.

3. See Robert J. Ambrogi, The Essential Guide to The Best (and Worst) Legal Sites on the Web (2d ed. 2004). Ambrogi, a Massachusetts attorney, writer and media consultant, has authored many articles about websites and their usefulness to members of the legal community. See Robert Ambrogi, More, More, More!: New Sites Include Search Tools and Legislative Tracking, L. Tech. News, Mar. 2005, at 58; Search on Steroids: Collexis Started as a Medical Tool, L. Tech. News, Feb. 2008, at 43; Surfin' Safari: The Latest Legal Websites Range from E-Discovery to Patent Venues, L. Tech. News, Nov. 2008, at 46; Super-Powered Websites: Add a Brain, Improve Your Vision, and Speak from the Grave, L. Tech. News, May 2008, at 46; The 10 Best Sites of the Decade: The Most Influential Sites Share Characteristics, L. Tech. News, Oct. 2003, at 66; Top Five Sites of 2007: From Lawyer Reviews to Case Data, the Most Influential Sites of the Year, L. Tech. News, Jan. 2008, at 62; Zeitgeist to Zillow: New Websites Run the Gamut from Real Estate to Lawyer Lounges, L. Tech. News, June 2006, at 50; see also Carole A. Levitt & Mark E. Rosch, The Lawyer'S Guide To Fact Finding On The Internet (3d ed. 2006) (discussing ways to save researchers time and money though the Internet); Catherine Sanders Reach & David Whelan, 10 Ways to Stretch Your Research Dollars: How to Get the Facts on a Dime, L. Practice, Mar. 2009, at 32 (discussing some ideas for keeping research overhead as low as possible, as well as many helpful and interesting research websites).

4. Legal Tech. Res. Ctr., Am. Bar Ass'n, 2008 Legal Technology Survey Report (2008). The report can be purchased from the American Bar Association, and you can read an executive summary of the report at the following location - http://www.abanet.org/tech/ltrc/survstat.html. The "Online Research" portion of the report covers the use of free and fee-based online legal research resources, as well as information about current awareness, knowledge management, locations where legal research occurs, and much more.

5. Donna Payne, Test Drive: GaGa For Google, L. Tech. News, Jan. 2009, at 50; see also David Ratcliff, What Can Google Do For You?, Trial, Sept. 2006, at 52 (discussing Google's capabilities).

6. The most familiar of the sites that offer comparisons of search engine features is Search Engine Showdown, http://www.searchengineshowdown.com/features/ (last visited Apr. 21, 2009). For a measure of how many searches are being handled regularly by Americans, see ComScore's most recent report located at http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?press=2750 (last visited Apr. 21, 2009).

7. Answers.google no longer accepts questions, but an archive of previously asked questions still remains at the site and is searchable. Approximately 1,850 questions with some answers about "Law" appear in the "Relationship and Society" section of Answers.google.

8. See Douglas S. Malan, Free Online Access to U.S. Court Decisions, Conn. L. Trib., Feb. 19, 2008, available at http://www.law.com/jsp/legaltechnology/pubArticleLT.jsp?id=900005503555.

9. See Daniel Fisher, The Law Goes Open Force, Forbes, June 30, 2008, at 70, for a discussion of the reasons why the developers of Fastcase, two lawyers who were practicing at Covington & Burling, decided to create an alternative to Westlaw and LexisNexis.

10. See David Whelan, Opinions Online: An Increasing Number of Courts Are Offering Web Access, L. Tech. News, July 2006, at 28.

11. See Warner J. Miller, Trial Court Docket Research Tools, Legal Info. Alert, July/Aug. 2007, at 1, for a discussion of the leading docket search and retrieval services.

12. For a discussion of the legal information institutes and public access to legal information, see Graham Greenleaf, Legal Information Institutes and the Free Access to Law Movement, http://www.nyulawglobal.org/globalex/Legal_Information_Institutes.htm (last visited Apr. 21, 2009).

13. See David Horrigan, Involuntary Spotlight? Avvo Expects Lawyers and Law Firms to "Claim" Their Profiles, L. Tech. News, May 2008, at 26.

14. For a discussion of the many different sources and locations for discovering and evaluating expert witnesses, see Hazel L. Johnson, Identifying and Evaluating Expert Witnesses, Va. Law., Dec. 2005, at 29.

15. For a review and description of the DRI.org website, see Robert J. Ambrogi, Two Paths to Solid Research: Two Websites Offer Similar Lessons in Enhanced Utility, L. Tech. News, Nov. 2005, at 46.

16. Increasingly, lawyers and other researchers at looking at how Web 2.0 technologies can change the way that lawyers practice. For an interesting discussion of Web 2.0 and its use by lawyers, see Edward A. Adams, Web 2.0 Still a No-Go: Lawyers Slow to Adopt Cutting-Edge Technology, ABA J., Sept. 2008, at 52. See generally Dan Regard & Tom Matzen, What Is Web 2.0?, L. Tech. News, May 2008, at 28 and Ellyssa Kroski, Web 2.0 for Librarians and Information Professionals (2008), for a basic understanding of Web 2.0 technology.

17. For a listing of the best 100 blogs arranged by subject matter as selected by the authors, see Molly McDonough & Sarah Randag, ABA Journal Blawg 100: Best of the Blogosphere, ABA J., Dec. 2008, at 34. See Mark Herrmann, Legal Blogs: Four Lessons Learned, Nat'l L.J., Jan. 7, 2008, at 27; Pamela A. MacLean, Judges Cite More Blogs In Rulings, Nat'l L.J., Sept. 12, 2006, at 7.

18. See Robert J. Ambrogi, Good News, Bad News: The ABA Creates a Great Portal But a Lousy Social Networking Site, L. Tech. News, Feb. 2009, at 51. For another discussion of social networking sites, see Tamara Thompson, Me, Myself and I: People Can Be Unguarded on Social Networking Sites, L. Tech. News, Dec. 2008, at 32.

19. Many articles and writers debate the usefulness of Wikipedia for legal researchers. See Diane Murley, In Defense of Wikipedia, 100 Law Libr. J. 593 (2008); Shawn Zeller, Getting The Facts, Right, 65 CQ Weekly 632 (2007); Noam Cohen, Courts Turn To Wikipedia, But Selectively, N.Y. Times, Jan. 29, 2007, at C3; Brock Read, Can Wikipedia Ever Make the Grade?, Chron. Higher Educ., Oct. 27, 2006, at A31; R. Jason Richards, Courting Wikipedia, Trial, Apr. 2008, at 62.

20. See Timothy L. Coggins, Virginia Law: It's Online, But Should You Use It?, Va. Law., at 35 (2008); Hazel L. Johnson, Internet Reality Check, Va. Law., Feb. 2000, at 1; Scott P. Stolley, The Corruption of Legal Research, For the Def., Apr. 2004, at 39; Lyn Warmath, Yes, Virginia, Everything Is Available on the Web for Free, Va. Law., Dec. 2005, at 32.